The metal industry's supply chain has suffered greatly in the wake of the crisis in Ukraine. Outside of Ukraine and Russia, the disruption in the supply of metal products will be felt all over the world.
Prior to the war, both countries accounted for roughly 20% of EU finished steel imports. Much of the steel used in internationally significant landmarks originates in Ukraine, including the steel used in the Shard in London, which came from the Azovstal steelworks in Mariupol. In addition, the Economist found that in 2021 countries that represent more than 77% of global GDP imported significant quantities of at least one base metal from Russia or Ukraine in that year.
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Amber has routinely carried out multiple analytical projects, utilising a wide range of OSINT tools, focussing on global violent and nonviolent actors, including the far-right and criminal and terrorist kidnapping groups. Amber holds an MA in International Security from the University of Sussex, where she conducted in-depth research into Eurasian politics, cyberwarfare and civil unrest in the Middle East.